North Pole Environment
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or the Terrestrial North Pole is the point at which the Earth’s axis of rotation meets its surface in the northern hemisphere. The North Pole is the northernmost point on Earth, from which all directions are south. The latitude of the North pole is 90 degrees north, and all lines of longitude meet there, and also at the South Pole. The current North Star, Polaris, is almost motionless in the sky above the pole, it is an excellent fixed point for celestial navigation in the northern hemisphere.
The North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean. The water of the Arctic Ocean is typically covered in ice, however climate change is causing this ice to melt. The depth of the ocean at the North Pole exceeds 4,000 metres. At the North Pole, sunlight is experienced in extremes due to the Earth rotating on a tilted axis. Each year the North pole experiences one sunrise and one sunset, meaning in summer there is 24 hours of sunlight and in winter there is 24 hours of darkness.
Wildlife at the North Pole includes polar bears, arctic foxes, walruses, seals, reindeer, caribou and birds such as ptarmigans, arctic tern, fulmars, kittiwakes and snow bunting; much of the wildlife at the North Pole is migratory as the drifting ice makes the habitat very unpredictable. Undersea wildlife at the North Pole includes shrimp, sea anemones, tiny crustaceans, arctic cod, and whales such as bowhead whales, beluga whales and narwhals.
Sources: National Geographic, WWF and National Wildlife Federation